Fizika Nizkikh Temperatur: Volume 24, Number 2 (February 1998), p. 172-175 ( to contents , go back )
Simulation of quantum field theory and gravity in superfluid 3He
G. E. Volovik
Helsinki University of Technology, Low Temperature Laboratory, P. O. Box 2200, FIN-02015 HUT, Finland
Superfluid phases of 3He are quantum liquids with the interacting fermionic and bosonic fields. In many respects they can simulate the interacting quantum fields in the physical vacuum. One can observe analogs of such phenomena as axial anomaly, vacuum polarization, zero-charge effect, fermionic charge of the vacuum, baryogenesis, ergoregion, vacuum instability, etc. We discuss some topics using as an example several linear defects in 3He-A: (1) disgyration, which simulates the extremely massive cosmic string, (2) singular vortex, which is analogous to the spinning cosmic string, and (3) continuous vortex, whose motion causes the "momentogenesis" which is the analog of baryogenesis in early Universe. The production of the fermionic momentum by the vortex motion (the counterpart of the electroweak baryogenesis) has been recently measured in Manchester experiments on rotating superfluid 3He-A and 3He-B. To simulate the other phenomena, one needs a rather low temperature and high homogeneity, which probably can be attained under microgravity conditions.